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Defect Clustering and Pesticide Paradox

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1- Defect clustering: A small number of modules contains most of the defects discovered during pre-release testing or shows the most operational failures.

Defect Clustering in Software Testing is based on the Pareto principle, also known as the 80-20 rule, where it is stated that approximately 80% of the problems are caused by 20% of the modules.

2- Pesticide paradox: If the same kinds of tests are repeated again and again, eventually the same set of test cases will no longer be able to find any new bugs. To overcome this “Pesticide Paradox”, it is really very important to review the test cases regularly and new and different tests need to be written to exercise different parts of the software or system to potentially find more defects.